In some parts of Europe, the tree ring chronologies go back over 7,000 years and in the USA they reach 8,000 years into the past. Swedish Wood represents the Swedish sawmill industry and is part of the Swedish Forest Industries Federation. The strength is also affected by the moisture in the wood, its temperature and the period under which it is stressed. the hard cones of a pine tree, but are subsequently distributed by the wind over a broad area. Fractures may be gradual or brittle. The load-bearing capacity of wooden structures in a fire can be worked out mathematically, in line Eurocode 5 for example. Outside the wood lies the cambium, which is the stem’s growth layer. “The ‘fura’ is the mature tree, where the diameter of the heartwood is more than half the diameter of the stem.”. Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as pines and spruces. Edge-glued panels and glulam panels are usually made from wood with a vertical grain for good dimensional stability. Softwood properties: • Softwoods come from coniferous trees. The scope of coverage is limited to softwood species, al­ though many of the general characteristics are applicable to hardwoods. Stiffness is the opposite of bending or deformation. Certain species of softwood are more resistant to insect attack from woodworm, as certain insects prefer damp hardwood. Due to their own specific properties, each type of wood has typical areas of use. Swedish Wood also lobbies on behalf of its members on key industry and trade issues. The fibre direction deviates from the direction of the forces at knots and when the fibres are not parallel with the edge of the wood. However, it does not add excess weight because it is so light. Lignocellulosic Properties of Softwood. Fir Softwood. There is, however, even greater variation within a single tree, for example between different heights in the tree, between wood that is close to the pith and to the bark, and between springwood and summerwood in the individual growth rings. The growth rings are narrower, with broader summerwood bands, in the outer parts of the stem, particularly in the lower logs. Similarly Southern Hard Wood Unbleached Kraft, will be a short fiber wood unbleached (low brightness) pulp made by kraft process. This is usually visible at both microscopic level and at the surface — hardwoods tend to have broad leaves, while softwoods tend to have needles and cones. End-grain flooring is hard and durable as the surface is entirely end-grain wood. … The seeds of this type of tree have no covering althought they might fall to the ground in some form of protection eg. A brittle fracture is sudden and occurs without warning. Spruce often has small pin knots between the branch whorls, which pine doesn’t have. Most soft wood have a tall pointed profile and are evergreen. The density of the wood, a key factor for many technical properties of wood, is determined largely by the proportion of summerwood in the width of the growth ring. Pine is easier to plane without getting such pick-ups. Therefore, wider rings indicate lower density in … The properties of softwood ? Even within the same wood species, there are major variations between different locations, but also between different trees grown in the same location. Hardwood and Softwood Species - Species of hardwood and softwood; Modulus of Rigidity - Shear Modulus (Modulus of Rigidity) is the elasticity coefficient for shearing or torsion force; Softwood Lumber - Grading - Rough lumber, surfaced lumber (dressed), … This layer transports nutrients (carbohydrates) down through the stem and distributes them to the living cells in the tree’s branches, stem and roots. The sapwood’s cells are also dead, except for about 5–10 percent, which are the nutrient-carrying parenchyma cells. Examples of softwood trees are: Pine, Fir, Hemlock, Spruce, Tamarack, Cedar, and Redwood. Dendrochronology is a method of determining the age of a tree. The term is opposed to hardwood, which is the wood from angiosperm trees. There are also 2–6 percent extractive substances in the wood. The vast majority of these are resin acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates and minerals (ash). Spruce usually has pitch pockets, which pine rarely has. [2] In many of these applications, there is a constant need for density and thickness monitoring and gamma-ray sensors have shown good performance in this case.[3]. Sweden has continuous tree ring chronologies of oaks and pines dating back around 1,500 years. Cellulose Content of Softwood. This is the case whether the load is caused by compression, tension or bending stresses in the wood. • Softwoods are special because they don’t lose their needles. Normal variations for the properties of density, strength and stiffness (modulus of elasticity) within the same wood type with an undistorted fibre structure: The quotient is therefore greater between, for example, the average material strength of wood and allowable working stress, in comparison with other construction materials. The longer wood is placed under stress, the more its strength reduces. In general, latewood, because of its thicker cell walls and smaller cell cavities, is denser than earlywood, and with increasing ring width its proportion decreases in softwoods and increases in ring-porous hardwoods. Characteristics of Softwood Most softwood have a lower density than hardwood (weighs lower). Some hardwoods (e.g. info@swedishwood.com, The timber industry’s campaign to promote the use of wood in design and construction, UK Timber Industry online information and inspiration, Your calculator for span tables, quantities, volumes, surface areas and angles, One of Sweden’s biggest and most important architectural competitions, The organisation for Swedish pulp, paper and woodworking industries, Wood is a sustainable construction material, Working environment and living environment, Factory-painted and quality-assured external cladding, Moroccan designers explore the potential of Swedish pine. following the length of the stem, than at right angles, across the grain. Softwoods are a versatile timber. Through inspiration, information and education, we promote wood as a competitive, renewable, versatile and natural material. Generally speaking gradual fractures, which account for most fractures in wood, are preferable. Larger dimensions and protection of the wood’s surface can make a wooden structure’s fire resistance higher. The density varies from wood to wood, within the same type of wood and in different parts of the same tree. Shear strength is higher across the grain than with the grain, and so in most cases the shear strength with the grain is the critical factor, for example at the supported ends of a beam. Properties of softwood Wood is the construction material with the oldest heritage in Sweden. Storgatan 19 They also have lignin, but of a slightly different type, and less of it than most hardwoods. The figures with no brackets state properties parallel to the fibres (II) and the figures in brackets state properties perpendicular to the fibres (T). They come from coniferous (conifer) trees and have cone or needle shaped leaves. Softwood samples stored at 50 °C had higher levels of heat release compared to samples stored at 20 °C or 60 °C. With pine there is a clear difference between the darker heartwood and the sapwood. balsa) are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood. The values for strength and modulus of elasticity are average values, and refer to small test samples, with no imperfections, at an average temperature of 20°C. Box 55525, [1] In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, the range of density in hardwoods completely including that of softwoods. Softwoods are generally most used by the construction industry and are also used to produce paper pulp, and card products. When a material has good thermal conductivity, it means that it can keep buildings warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Most species of pine are softer than hardwoods, have prominent annular rings and are lighter in colour than most hardwoods. They come from coniferous (conifer) trees and have cone or needle shaped leaves. Compression strength is high in the fibre direction, with the grain, but much lower, around 1/6, across the grain. SE-102 04 Stockholm Softwood is generally wood from gymnosperm trees such as pines and springs. Function: Softwood fibers (tracheids) confer high tearing strength, ability to withstand multiple folding, and a range of other strength-related properties. Pros of Softwood: Workability: Softwood is easier to work with and can be used across a broad range of applications. Research into wood and construction is an important issue for Swedish Wood. This is despite the fact that southern Swedish wood generally has broader growth rings than wood from northern Sweden. Wood has good thermal properties and historically solid wood has been used as a thermal insulation material. Wood retains its load-bearing capacity in a fire, in contrast to unprotected steel. In softwoods, medullary rays and tracheidstransport water and produce sap. What are Softwoods? Here you can easily find descriptions of many termes related to wood and wood industry. The cambium is encased with the bast (phloem), which is often referred to as the inner bark. The properties of softwood ? Density is a piece of wood’s mass divided by its volume, expressed in kilos per cubic metre. It’s additionally … Softwood is typically used in construction as structural carcassing timber, as well as finishing timber. Higher levels of thermal radiation are required for ignition without a naked flame. When viewed under a microscope, softwoods have no vi… The cells in the heartwood are dead and some have been clogged up with resin, which means that they can’t carry water and thus have a relatively low moisture content, 30–50 percent. The woods of longleaf pine, Douglas fir, and yew are much harder in the mechanical sense than several hardwoods. Also known as Douglas fir, this wood is often employed in buildings. Hardness refers to the ease with which a surface is damaged by external pressure, for example heels on a floor or knocks on a table top. Due to them being non-porous they rely … The terms “hardwoods” and “softwoods” are not always descriptive The lower parts of the stem need to be stronger to resist the stresses of wind and snow. Bleached tells, it has high brightness and Kraft tells that Kraft (Sulfate) pulping process is used to produced this pulp. The outer bark encases the whole stem, providing protection from water loss and various parasites. The chart of “Physical Properties of Wood” is divided into three parts -- North American Hardwoods, North American Softwoods, and World Woods, or woods from other places than North America. This is due to the way the wood’s properties spread so widely, which means that safety margins have to be built in. Wood cladding with a thickness of ≥ 18 mm (≥ 12 mm without air gap behind the wood cladding) meets class D under the European system. The time until ignition can vary greatly and depends on thermal radiation, ventilation and the presence of a naked flame. In spite of the differences between pine and spruce, they should be considered statistically equal in construction terms. They are both used for a range of structural and decorative projects. Each cutting board is checkerboard patterned and made from endgrain hardwoods. The density is therefore low in the wood near the pith, compared with the mature wood further out along the radius of the stem. Flexible, lighter in weight and less dense than most hardwoods, softwoods are frequently used for interior mouldings, the manufacturing of windows, construction framing and generating sheet goods such as … Visiting address: Softwoods are timbers without vessels. During the growth season, new cells are formed in the cambium. Softwood trees are evergreen, and species include Cedar, Douglas fir, Pine and Hemlock. Softwood is typically used in construction as structural carcassing timber, as well as finishing timber. In both groups, there is a major change in the actual hardness of the wood, the hardwood density from the solid wood density which is fully included. They also have lignin, but of a slightly different type, and less of it than most hardwoods. North American Hardwoods Cedar is a type of coniferous wood, meaning that it is classified as a softwood and its cones/needles remain all year round. The conifer tree’s wood comprises 40–45 percent cellulose, around 20–22 percent hemicellulose and just under 30 percent lignin. This guide presents details of the botanical classification, properties and uses of the most commercially important American softwood species. Growth improves after thinning due to better access to light and nutrients, and conversely growth can fall if a tree has grown too close to other larger neighbouring trees. In the inner part of the stem, in the juvenile wood near the pith, the growth rings are often broad with thin summerwood bands. Since the sapwood’s cells are not clogged with resin, they are able to carry water and the soluble nutrients from the absorbent root hairs to the needles of the tree. The bast is connected to the pith via medullary rays, which are living in the sapwood but dead in the heartwood. Arch 172: Properties of Wood Before we go inside the tree, let's look at the two basic classes of trees ‐the broadleaved or deciduous trees, that produce hardwoods, and the coniferous or evergreen trees, that produce softwoods. The thermal capacity of wood is relatively high at around 1,300 J per kg °C for absolutely dry wood. Hardwoods have vessel elements that transport water throughout the wood; under a microscope, these elements appear as pores. Wood is an anisotropic material, which means that it has different properties in different directions. Pine tends to have oval knots. Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. Compare table 11 in this section. The heartwood and sapwood of spruce has the same colour in the dried wood, making heartwood hard to identify. As such, it is possible to see indicators of good and poor growth years, and how the conditions for growth have been affected by different silviculture measures. properties, and the manufacturing and grading processes for sawn lumber and glulam. Only a couple of species of Cedrus exist in the world, but they exhibit certain traits that make them very popular. Postal address: Softwood is the source of about 80% of the world's production of timber,[6] with traditional centres of production being the Baltic region (including Scandinavia and Russia), North America and China. Thermal conductivity is greatest in the direction of the fibres, and it increases with the moisture level and the density. Pine is commonly used for joinery, mouldings and internal cladding, although spruce may be used. ”Swedish Wood’s aim is to increase the size and value of the market for Swedish wood and wood products in construction, interior design and packaging. This is an important consideration when choosing woods for projects that will be subject to abrasion or heavy … Softwood trees tend to have less acetic acid (1-2%) than hardwoods (3-5%) (Hatchfield 2002). For example, wood is considerably stronger in the direction of the fibres, i.e. Australia has a lot of native softwood species, such as hoop pine, white cypress and celery top pine. For wood this is usually stated as the basic density or for a particular moisture content, e.g. Hardwoods such as oak and beech are used in flooring and furniture. For the plant propagation technique known as softwood cutting, see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, United States – Canada softwood lumber dispute, "A basic guide to softwoods and hardwoods", Forest Products Annual Market Review 2007-2008, International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Softwood&oldid=993695566, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles needing additional references from October 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 00:22. The density is therefore higher in a butt log than in a middle log or top log. Softwoods are not necessarily softer than hardwoods. Bending strength is usually measured with the grain. The proportion of summerwood is thus higher, which gives the mature wood a higher density and strength. In planed wood, spruce often has small pick-ups around the knots. Summerwood, which weighs 900 kilos per cubic metre dry wood, is three times denser than springwood, which weighs 300 kilos per cubic metre dry wood. Softwoods are usually found making up the framework of most houses, though they are also useful in creating cabinetry and trim or other decorative finishing touches. Of all available softwood species, cedar tends to be one of the best thermal insulators. A wood with a high density should thus be chosen for flooring. The charring rate is around 0.5–1 mm per minute. Softwood properties: On the other hand, softwoods derive from conifers and are more readily available, easily manipulated and develop at a quicker pace, leading to lower cost levels. In addition, Swedish Wood represents the Swedish glulam and packaging industries, and collaborates closely with Swedish builders’ merchants and wholesalers of wood products.”, Swedish Wood The growth rings therefore tend to be narrower and have thinner bands of summerwood in colder climates than in warm ones. the ability of the wood surface to resist damage. The hardness of wood is greater with the grain than against it. Spruce is the wood used primarily as construction timber. Most of softwoods are used for general construction, fences, and paper pulp. The summer wood cells, which form during the summer months, are 20–25 percent longer and have much thicker cell walls than the springwood. The sapwood’s moisture content varies between 120 and 160 percent. The thicker cell walls mean that the summerwood cells are around three times heavier than the springwood cells, with a basic density of around 900 kg/m3. The strength depends in part on the density of the wood and on how well the direction of the fibres matches the direction of the forces that arise when the wood is under stress. Basic density is defined as the mass of the dry wood sample divided by the volume of the fully hydrated wood sample. Apart from the direction of the fibres, the hardness of wood depends primarily on the density. In terms of price, they are often less expensive than hardwood. The degree of bending depends on the grain of the wood and on its modulus of elasticity. Cedar trees fall under the Cedrus genus and the Pinaceae family, which is the family of treesthat is coniferous. The width of growth rings and the proportion of summerwood varies within the stem. Knots and other fibre distortions (imperfections) also affect the wood’s technical properties. The effective calorific value of pine and spruce as a fuel is 19.3 MJ per kg dry substance. Wooden structures have good fire safety properties. Additional information on wood properties and characteristics is given in references listed at the end of this chapter. The redwood, which is used side grain, provides ideal properties for the border. Western Red Cedar especially is superior to steel, concrete, and brick in this respect. When a length of wood with high stiffness is bent, it doesn’t give very much, remaining quite straight instead. The reason for this is that the summerwood band, the dark part of the growth ring, is wider in southern Sweden. 90–95 percent of the wood is made up of long, hollow cells, which the forest industry calls fibres. They belong to the botanical group Gymnopermae plants that bear exposed seeds. Wood chars slowly and below the charred surface is normal wood, which retains its original properties. It is important that softwood is not softer than hardwood. Judging the density based solely on the width of the growth ring is therefore misleading. A detailed compilation of the polysaccharide and ligneous composition of wood was carried out by (Fengel and Grosser, 1975). In other words: a pine. Softwood is the source of about 80% of the world's production of timber, with traditional centres of production being the Baltic region (including Scandinavia and Russia), North America and China. Properties: Pine is a soft, white or pale yellow wood which is light weight, straight grained and lacks figure. All the values relate to wood with 12% moisture content. Pines and spruces have a similar composition. These timbers mainly have one type of cell that has a dual function, transporting the sap (nutrients) to the leaves and supporting the tree. For example, Balsa Wood is considered a hardwood but is one of the least dense woods and one of the lightest. Many believe that hardwood is a harder and denser material than softwood, but this is not necessarily the case. +46 8 762 72 60 To see the properties for any wood species, click on its name. To access any part, click on the title below. They belong to the botanical group Gymnopermae plants that bear exposed seeds. SOFTWOODS : PINE: Pine is a softwood which grows in most areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Strategies for Use: Softwood kraft pulp is the main component of linerboard for corrugated containers and for bag grades. They come from coniferous (conifer) trees and have cone or needle shaped leaves. Wood is the construction material with the oldest heritage in Sweden. This is the case along the whole length of the tree. Softwood is the term for the wood of a coniferous tree. Drill Bit Speed - Hardwood and Softwood - Hardwood and softwood drill speed chart Fire Wood - the Cord - The cord is the most common unit for purchasing fuel wood Metal Alloys - Specific Heats - Specific heat of metal alloys like brass, bronze and more There are differences between the physical structures of hardwoods and softwoods. Please read more on Density here. Tensile strength is high with the grain, but much lower, around 1/30, across the grain. The cambium produces wood cells inwardly and bark (cork) cells outwardly. They belong to the botanical group Gymnopermae plants that bear exposed seeds. Burning wood only generates moderate amounts of smoke. Most soft wood have a tall pointed profile and are evergreen. This means that the basic density is low, at around 300 kilos per cubic metre. Their cell structure is … Phone: Because of their versatility, most species can be used for a wide range of applications. The unbleached pulp with a higher kappa number of 33.7 contained proportionally more residual lignin available for reaction in the first oxygen delignification stage. Since wood is used for a whole host of purposes in construction – structural frames, exterior and interior wall cladding, fittings, floor coverings, formwork and scaffolding, the list goes on – it is important to understand how wood behaves under different conditions. Wood from southern Sweden is denser, stronger and more durable than wood from northern Sweden. • Softwoods have needles instead of leaves. A gradual fracture is preceded by some form of warning, such as major distortions or cracking sounds in the wood. It is attractive, easily worked, and sufficiently strong. Numerous factors affect wood’s burning properties, primarily moisture content, dimensions, density and fibre direction. The lowest thermal radiation for the ignition of wood with a naked flame is around 12 kW per cubic metre. Softwoods have a vascular structure which looks similar to a bunch of drinking straws held together. The cells that are formed in spring and early summer are short and relatively wide, with thin walls. You can also find links to relevant pages in Choosing Wood. We work actively to influence Swedish research policy so that more resources are invested in research, development and innovation (RD&I) within our sector. Despite their classification, softwood is still fairly hard and dense and is used mostly for construction purposes. Their cell structure is less porous than Hardwood. https://www.dummies.com/crafts/types-of-wood-for-woodworking A summary of basic pulp properties of softwood pulp during ECF bleaching is listed in Table 1. Softwood trees are found in temperate and mountainous regions. I use redwood for borders around cutting boards. Since wood is used for a whole host of purposes in construction – structural frames, exterior and interior wall cladding, fittings, floor coverings, formwork and scaffolding, the list goes on – it is important to understand how wood behaves under different conditions. The way the growth rings develop is determined in part by the climate during the growth season. The other cells are shorter, with thinner walls. The strength of the wood depends on how the stress occurs, there is thus the following correlation: The wood’s strength cannot be fully used up around the fracture limit, so lower levels of stress have to be chosen. The Northern Soft Wood tells it is long fiber pulp. This is due to its high proportion of air spaces and its low density. Due to their faster growth, softwoods are lower in cost than hardwood. Material properties vary between the different wood species. 12%. Sustainability: Softwood trees grow much faster than hardwood, and are considered a very renewable source. Softwoods on the other hand come from trees that are known as gymnosperms. In the centre of the stem’s cross-section sits the pith, which runs through the whole tree and terminates at the top with a bud. The various species of softwoods from Southern and Western America provide a wide range of choices. The pith is enclosed by the wood, which can be divided into heartwood and sapwood. A high modulus of elasticity means high stiffness. The properties of softwood ? Due to the differences in density, the springwood appears as a lighter ring than the dark summerwood. A dry piece of wood is stronger than one with more moisture, and colder wood is stronger than warmer wood. There are more than 100 species worldwide. These fibres are about the thickness of a hair and vary in length between 0.5 and 6 mm. In terms of strength, pine and spruce are treated the same, and they are normally judged to have the same strength values: Stiffness and hardness may also be included in the strength properties. In wood flooring, the springwood therefore wears more quickly than the summerwood. Under stress, the springwood therefore wears more quickly than the dark part the. Is high in the lower logs limited to softwood species, such as hoop pine, Douglas fir and... Thermal capacity of wood is greater with the grain of the stem, providing protection water! And spruces stem, providing protection from water loss and various parasites are lower in cost than hardwood very. Lighter ring than the dark part of the Swedish forest Industries Federation whether the load caused. And early summer are short and relatively wide, with thinner walls growth ring, wider... Length of the wood ; under a microscope, softwoods have a tall pointed profile and are.. 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